General Chemistry Revision


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atomic number lollest


number of protons in nucleus


valence electrons


electrons in the outermost shell (can be easily shared, gained or lost)


Pauli Exclusion Principle


An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction


Aufbau Principle


An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it


electro negativity


A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons


gamma radiation


electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength


covalent bond


A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule


electrostatic repulsion


Describes a force between particles with opposite electrical charges that causes them to push apart from one another


Daltons Law of Partial Pressures


Total pressure of a gas is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the component gases


heat of fusion


Amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase.


Le Chateliers Principle


States that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress.


surface tension


An inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin


molarity


A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.


viscosity


A liquids resistance to flowing


equilibrium constant


the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium, with each concentration raised to a power equal to the number of moles of that substance in the balanced chemical equation